Download e-book for kindle: Analytical applications of nuclear techniques by International Atomic Energy Agency

By International Atomic Energy Agency

ISBN-10: 9201147031

ISBN-13: 9789201147035

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Sample text

Why nuclear analytical techniques? In the field of ultra-trace analysis of radioisotopes, the radiometrical determination of low concentrations of a and b emitters can have severe limitations: interferences from other radionuclides may exist, and the level of detection is dependent on the lifetime. For isotopes with long half-lives, measuring times of the order of up to a few days are often required, which might not be acceptable, for example in the event of an emergency. Here selective atom counting of the individual species of interest using laser mass spectrometric techniques has a number of advantages.

Why nuclear analytical techniques? The positron is the antiparticle of the electron. It can be implanted in substances like metals or semiconductors and, since it has positive charge, it is captured in a vacancy where positive ions are lacking. In insulating materials, the positron can combine with an electron to form a neutral atom called positronium (e+ + e–: Ps). It is the smallest and the lightest of all atoms, and properly sits in a small vacancy. Both the positron and positronium can be implanted at some depth within a substance; even ‘hidden’ vacancies are accessible.

Why nuclear analytical techniques? The positron is the antiparticle of the electron. It can be implanted in substances like metals or semiconductors and, since it has positive charge, it is captured in a vacancy where positive ions are lacking. In insulating materials, the positron can combine with an electron to form a neutral atom called positronium (e+ + e–: Ps). It is the smallest and the lightest of all atoms, and properly sits in a small vacancy. Both the positron and positronium can be implanted at some depth within a substance; even ‘hidden’ vacancies are accessible.

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Analytical applications of nuclear techniques by International Atomic Energy Agency


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