By Leonard Susskind

ISBN-10: 9812560831

ISBN-13: 9789812560834

ISBN-10: 9812561315

ISBN-13: 9789812561312

Over the past decade the physics of black holes has been revolutionized by means of advancements that grew out of Jacob Bekenstein s awareness that black holes have entropy. Stephen Hawking raised profound matters about the lack of info in black gap evaporation and the consistency of quantum mechanics in an international with gravity. for 2 many years those questions wondered theoretical physicists and at last resulted in a revolution within the approach we predict approximately area, time, subject and data. This revolution has culminated in a amazing precept referred to as The Holographic precept , that is now a big concentration of cognizance in gravitational learn, quantum box thought and basic particle physics. Leonard Susskind, one of many co-inventors of the Holographic precept in addition to one of many founders of String idea, develops and explains those ideas.

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**Extra resources for An introduction to black holes, information and the string theory revolution : the holographic universe**

**Example text**

1 the relation between neighboring equal Rindler-time surfaces is shown. 4) Thus, to push the ω-surface ahead requires a ρ-dependent time translation. This is the reason that T 00 is weighted with the factor ρ. The Rindler Hamiltonian is similar to the generator of Lorentz boosts from the viewpoint of the Minkowski observer. However it only involves the degrees of freedom in Region I. 2 Entanglement Quantum ﬁelds can also be described in a self-contained fashion in Rindler space, but a new twist is encountered.

If they are extrememly light their locations will necessarily suﬀer large quantum ﬂuctuations, and they will not be useful as ﬁxed anchors labeling spacetime points. If they are massive they will inﬂuence the gravitational ﬁeld that we wish to describe. Quantum mechanically, physical Fidos must be replaced by a more abstract concept called gauge fixing. The concept of gauge ﬁxing in gravitation theory implies a mathematical restriction on the choice of coordinates. However all real observables are required to be gauge invariant.

34) Thus, to the Fido near r = 2M G, the Schwarzschild clock appears to run at a very rapid rate. 17. The spatial location of the Fidos can be labeled by the angular coordinates (θ, φ) and any one of the radial variables r, r∗ , or ρ. Classically the Fidos can be thought of as mathematical ﬁctions or real but arbitrarily light 22 Black Holes, Information, and the String Theory Revolution systems suspended by arbitrarily light threads from some sort of suspension system built around the black hole at a great distance.

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